Nucleic acid testing is to find out whether there is nucleic acid of foreign invading viruses in respiratory specimens, blood, or feces of patients to determine whether they are infected with the new coronavirus. Therefore, once the nucleic acid test is "positive", it can be proved that the virus is present in the patient.
Nucleic acid testing sample collection
1. Nasopharyngeal swab: The sampler gently supports the head of the person to be collected with one hand, and holds the swab with the other hand. Insert the swab into the nostril and penetrate slowly back along the bottom of the lower nasal passage. Because the nasal passage is curved, it cannot be used. Use excessive force to avoid traumatic bleeding. When the tip of the swab reaches the posterior wall of the nasopharyngeal cavity, turn it gently for a week (if there is a reflex cough, it should stay for a while), then slowly remove the swab, and immerse the swab head in 2-3 ml of virus preservation solution (or use isotonic saline, tissue culture, or phosphate buffered saline), discard the tail, and tighten the cap.
2. Throat swab: The person to be collected first gargles with normal saline, and the collection swab is moistened with sterile normal saline (it is forbidden to put the swab in the virus preservation solution to avoid allergies caused by antibiotics). The pharyngeal tonsils on both sides were exposed, pharyngeal tonsils on both sides were exposed, and the pharyngeal tonsils on both sides were wiped. The subjects were gently wiped at least 3 times, and then the posterior pharyngeal wall was wiped up and down at least 3 times. , immerse the swab head in 2-3 ml of virus preservation solution (isotonic saline solution, solution or phosphate buffered saline can also be used for tissue culture), discard the tail, and tighten the tube cap. Throat swabs can also be placed in the same tube as nasopharyngeal swabs.
3. Nasopharyngeal or respiratory tract extracts: Mucus is drawn from respiratory secretions of the nasopharynx or trachea with a collector connected to a negative pressure pump. Insert the head of the collector into the nasal cavity or trachea, turn on the negative pressure, rotate the head of the collector to slowly withdraw, collect the extracted mucus, and rinse the collector once with 3ml of sampling solution (you can also use a pediatric catheter to connect it to a 50ml syringe. Alternative collector).
4. Deep cough sputum: After the patient is required to cough deeply, collect the coughed-up sputum in a sampling tube containing 3ml of sampling solution. If no sputum is collected in the sampling solution, a 2-3ml sampling solution can be added before the test, or an equal volume of sputum digestion solution can be added.
5. Bronchial lavage: Insert the head of the collector into the trachea (about 30cm deep) from the nostril or tracheal socket, inject 5 ml of normal saline, turn on the negative pressure, rotate the head of the collector to exit slowly, collect and extract the mucus, and rinse it with the sampling solution. once, or replace the collector with a pediatric catheter connected to a 50ml syringe.
6. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: After local anesthesia, insert a fiberoptic bronchoscope into the right middle lobe bronchus or the left lingual segment through the mouth or nose through the pharynx, and insert the top of the bronchial branch into the bronchial opening. The bronchi were branched and disinfectant was slowly added through the tracheal biopsy hole. Bacterial saline, 30-50ml each time, total 100-250ml, not more than 300ml.
7. Fecal specimens: Take 1ml of the specimen treatment solution, pick the size of soybean grains and add it to the test tube, gently blow and suck 3-5 times, stand at room temperature for 10 minutes, centrifuge at 8000 rpm for 5 minutes, and aspirate the supernatant test solution.
8. Anal swab: Gently insert a sterile cotton swab into the anus for 3-5cm, then gently rotate to pull out, immediately put it into a 15ml outer screw-cap sampling tube containing 3-5ml of virus preservation solution, discard the tail, and then rotate Cotton swabs. Tighten the lid.
9. Blood sample: It is recommended to use a vacuum tube containing EDTA anticoagulant to collect a 5ml blood sample. According to the type of nucleic acid extraction reagent selected, whole blood or plasma is used for nucleic acid extraction. To isolate plasma, centrifuge whole blood at 1500-2000 rpm for 10 min and collect supernatant in sterile screw-cap plastic tubes.
10. Serum sample: collect 5ml blood sample with a vacuum negative pressure blood collection tube, stand at room temperature for 30 minutes, centrifuge at 1500-2000 rpm for 10 minutes, and collect serum in a sterile spiral plastic tube.
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